Charlottetown Medical Clinics - The medical term "Respiratory Disease" encompasses different pathological conditions affecting the organs and tissues that make gas exchange possible. Respiratory disease comprises conditions of the upper respiratory tract, bronchi, bronchioles, trachea, pleural cavity, alveoli, pleura in addition to the muscles and nerves responsible for breathing. Respiratory diseases range from self-limiting and mild such as the common cold for example, to life-threatening conditions like for instance bacterial pneumonia, ling cancer and pulmonary embolism.
The study of Pulmonology focuses on respiratory diseases, while those specializing doctors in this particular field are known as a pulmonologist. Medical practitioners in this field might likewise be referred to as: a thoracic medicine specialist, a respiratory medicine specialist, a respirologist and a chest medicine expert.
There are numerous classifications utilized for the numerous respiratory diseases; they can be classed by the organ or tissue involved or can be classed by the pattern and type of related symptoms and signs, or according to the cause of the disease or etiology.
Inflammatory Lung Disease
This particular disease, that comprises emphysema, acute respiratory distress syndrome, cystic fibrosis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, are characterized by a high neutrophil count.
A common reason for acute respiratory disease is an allergic response because of exposure to various foods and agents. There are some really common allergens found in particular foods like for example lemon, radish, sea foods like for example some fatty fish and prawns, peanuts, bananas, ice creams and dairy, pomegranates, lemon, arrowroot, lady's finger and berries. Weather conditions can likewise affect various people as sandy and dusty weather conditions during summertime can make the air quality poor for people who are sensitive.
Obstructive Lung Diseases
This category of lung diseases are where the airways including the bronchioles, alveoli and bronchi become reduced in volume or else have the free flow of gas impeded, thus making it more difficult to move air in and out of the lungs.
COPD or Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Asthma is an example of COPD. In this obstructive lung disease, the airways become damaged and this causes them to narrow.
Restrictive Lung Diseases or Interstitial Lung Diseases
This is a category of respiratory disease which is characterized by a loss of lung compliance. These lung diseases cause increased lung stiffness and incomplete lung expansion. IRDS or Infant Respiratory Distress Syndrome is an example.
Respiratory Tract Infections
Infections can affect whichever part of the respiratory system. They are traditionally divided into upper respiratory tract infections and lower respiratory tract infections.
Upper Respiratory Tract Infection
The common cold is the most common type of upper respiratory infection. Infections of specific organs found within the upper respiratory tract like pharyngitis, tonsillitis, laryngitis, otitis media and sinusitis are also in this category.
Lower Respiratory Tract Infection
Pneumonia is the most common lower respiratory tract infection. It is a lung infection normally caused by bacteria, normally Streptococcus in the Western world. Tuberculosis is a large cause of pneumonia across the globe. Various viruses and fungi could lead to pneumonia too, like for instance acute respiratory syndrome and pneumocystic pneumonia.
Respiratory tumours are either malignant or benign.
Pleural Cavity Diseases
Diseases of the pleural cavity consists of emphysema and mesothelioma. A build up of fluid within the pleural cavity is called a pleural effusion. This can be due to conditions like for example cirrhosis and congestive heart failure, because the fluid from the bloodstream shifts into the pleural cavity. Diseases here can also happen from pleura inflammation, TB, mesothelioma, pulmonary embolism and various conditions.
A hole in the pleura that covers the lung and allows air within the lung to escape into the pleural cavity is known as a pneumothorax. In this example, the affected lung collapses like a balloon that is inflated. A tension pneumothorax is a severe form of this where the air is unable to escape in the pleural cavity and the pressure gets bigger eventually compressing the heart and blood vessels, resulting in a dangerous life-threatening situation.
Pulmonary Vascular Diseases
Pulmonary Vascular Diseases are certain conditions which affect the pulmonary circulation. Examples of these diseases include: Pulmonary hemorrhage, Pulmonary arterial hypertension, Pulmonary embolism and Pulmponary edema.
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